ChronologyLibraryThe Abkhaz and Western Caucasian DNA

Post Published » 16 Jan 2016, 16:03, recent changes » 09 Feb 2017, 15:55



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CONTENT

Admixtures
  | The group "Georgians" in 1082 AD. (914—1278 AD.)
  | A history of the residence region of the group "Georgians" during their main admixture event in 1082 AD. (914—1278 AD.)
  | The group "Adygei" in 1530 AD. (1418—1810 AD.)
  | A history of the residence region of the group "Adygei" during their main admixture event in 1530 AD. (1418—1810 AD.)
  | The group "Adygei" in 990 BC. (3678 BC. — 830 AD.)
  | A history of the residence region of the group "Adygei" during their main admixture event in 990 BC. (3678 BC. — 830 AD.)
  | Admixture conclusions on "Adygei" and "Georgian" groups

Y chromosome
  | Genetic pictures of the Abkhaz-adyghe and the south caucasian populations
  | The Abkhazian Y-chromosome haplogroups
  | Time to the common male ancestor by 111 markers on G-M201 for Abkhazians and Georgians
  | Western Caucasian (Circassians, Abkhazians, Megrelians, Georgians, Ossetians) Y-chromosome haplogroups conclusions

Mitochondrial DNA
  | Abkhazian mitochondrial DNA haplogroups
  | Abkhazian mitochondrial DNA haplogroups conclusions

History and languages
  | History and languages conclusions

General conclusions

Materials






The Abkhaz and Western Caucasian DNA


«Facts do not cease to exist because
they are ignored»
Aldous Huxley

«He who controls the past
controls the future.»
George Orwell




One of the most difficult issues of the modern history is a determination of a degree of the caucasian populations kinship. This anthropogenetical study will try to make one more step in solving this problem, relying on a broad base of genetic researches, especially of male Y-chromosome markers, which are one of the most informative markers in the reconstruction of population kinships.

Admixtures

14 February 2014, the "Science" journal has published this article with a link to A genetic atlas of human admixture history. The job was carried out under the supervision of geneticist Dr. Garrett Hellenthal and is described in this document and a FAQ. They used data analysis autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism (autosomal SNPs) from 1490 people out of 95 population groups (2 to 46 people in each group). They define the group as "a certain number of people with an identical genetic picture" and date back the main genes admixing events between the studied groups.

Example 1

www.admixturemap.paintmychromosomes.com / Menu / Historical event / Tutorial part 1 - simple events

"...For example, look at the 'Moroccan-Yoruba' curve in the box on the left (Example 1). The upward slope of this curve indicates that Moroccan-like and Yoruban-like DNA were on opposite "sides" of the event. Similarly, the Moroccan-Tunisian curve slopes downwards implying that these segments of DNA came from the same source..."

In other words, the orange objects are always on one side of the main admixing events, and the blue are on the opposite. These data, in combination with the historical materials, will show a more accurate picture on the ethnogenesis of those groups in the given periods of their main admixing events.

A short dialog with Dr. Hellenthal, clarifies some more details of their data analyzing methods:

On Wednesday, May 21, 2014, Давид Аршба <darshba@XXX> wrote:
Good afternoon, Dr. Hellenthal.

I am intrested in two groups within your project (www.admixturemap.paintmychromosomes.com): Adygei and Georgian. Georgian has Estimated date (95% CI): 1082CE (914CE - 1278CE). Initially I was thinking that this means that Georgian group was formed out of all inferred groups in the timeline 914CE - 1278CE, and the 1082CE is an average date on this timeline. But now I've found out that this might be the only one admixture event, which was stretched on 914CE - 1278CE, and the 1082CE date is not an average date. Could you briefly decribe the method of finding this date? And a second question: why did you choose to analyze precisely this period of admixture event and not the other? As I understand, those admixture events can occur anytime a new child is born.

Thank you for such world overturning researches. Good luck!

David Arshba

---
On Wednesday, May 28, 2014, Garrett Hellenthal <ghellenthal@gmail.com> wrote:
Hi David -

Thanks for your interest!

For your date question, our method infer specific admixture events. These are when two (or perhaps more) genetically different groups intermix and have children. Our model assumes this happens at a precise time (i.e. a particular generation, though the model can be more flexible) in the past. In reality if two different groups meet, in some cases it could take some years for them to intermix at a level our approach can detect. In such a case, the date we infer likely represents a time slightly after (i.e. more recent than when) they first met up and started mixing.

For our Georgian samples, we infer that our assumption that intermixing happens over a single generation - though clearly wrong - fits the data quite well and so likely isn't too far from the truth. Our "best-guess" for the date of this mixing event is 1082CE. However, there is statistical uncertainty in our date estimate, such that the true date of this intermixing (likely) falls somewhere within 914-1278CE. Again this date range is meant to reflect a single event where two groups met and exchanged DNA over a narrow time frame (i.e. over tens of years). There may be other older events in our Georgian data that we miss, as our approach has more power to see recent intermixing events. But at least with our sample size of 20 individuals, we do not see evidence for any other (older) mixing events.

In contrast, for the Adygei we DO see evidence for two distinct mixing events, one occuring at (or around) 1530CE and the other much older (~990BCE). However, if you could see the SOM, it would caution that in this case because we infer that similar groups intermixed at each of these two times, it is possible that -- instead if two distinct events - there has been continuous mixing from East Asia into this region from ~990BCE until ~1530CE. So interpreting these signals can be complicated!

hope this helps,
Garrett




The group "Georgians" in 1082 AD. (914—1278 AD.)



Graph 1

Number of individuals: 20
The time period of the admixing events: 914—1278 AD.
Approximate date of the main admixing event: 1082 AD.

The group "Georgians", as a modern population was formed as a result of the main admixing event in 1082 AD. between 914 AD. and 1082 AD. from the following groups:

The first side of the admixtures of the "Georgians" (orange): Adygei (28.6%), Palestinian (0.4%), Hazara (0.4%), Brahui (0.3%), Naxi (0.3%), Druze (0.3%), IndianJew (0.1%), Indian (0.1%), Yi (0.1%), Hezhen (0.1%)

The second side of the admixtures of the "Georgians" (blue): Greek (19.5%), Armenian (12.4%), SouthItalian (6.3%), Cypriot (5.3%), Lezgin (5.1%), NorthItalian (3.9%), Syrian (3.0%), Jordanian (2.6%), EastSicilian (2.4%), Pathan (1.7%), Makrani (1.4%), Tuscan (1.3%), Druze (0.9%), Sindhi (0.8%), Bedouin (0.7%), Burusho (0.6%), Palestinian (0.3%), Brahui (0.2%), Kalash (0.2%), Balochi (0.2%), WestSicilian (0.2%)


The region history of the "Georgians" residence during the main admixture event in 1082 AD. (914—1278 AD.)

According to Dr. Hellenthal, from the dialog above (... For our Georgian samples ... at least with our sample size of 20 individuals, we do not see evidence for any other (older) mixing events ...) This admixing event of the group "Georgians" exactly coincides with the period of the Abkhazian Kingdom and it's later evolve to the Kingdom of Abkhazians and Kartvelians (Sakartvelo) which was located almost on 80% of today's Georgia's territory, included Abkhazia and part of Turkey to Trabzon (See additional materials below. Achugba, Bakhtadze, Vachnadze, Guruli). The Graph 1 shows the three main parts of a admixture of the "Georgians" group. Those groups are Adygei, Armenians and Greeks.
Example 2
In more detail view at the groups admixing among themselves, using the method described above in Example 1, we can see that the three major groups belong to opposite sides of the admixture (it is evident from the curves directed upwards in the Example 2). The group "Adygei" is on one side, and groups "Greeks" with "Armenians" on the other.

The dominant segments of the "Adygei" and the "Armenians" can be explained by the fact that during this period the region of Central Georgia was constantly passing from Armenian to Abkhazian kings and vice versa. The presence of "Greeks" in the region, is also quite evident throughout the studied period. Those kings where partly Greeks themselves as well as their armies, religious leaders and of course the Pontic Greeks living in the region since the 5th century BC.




The group "Adygei" in 1530 AD. (1418—1810 AD.)



Graph 2

Number of individuals: 17
The time period of the admixing events: 1418—1810 AD.
Approximate date of the main admixing event: 1530 AD.

The group "Adygei", as a modern population was formed as a result of two main admixing events. The second more ancient event, described further below. The first event in 1530 AD. between 1418 AD. and 1810 AD. and the admixing groups were:

The first side of the admixtures of the "Adygei" (orange): Finnish (1.8%), Xibo (1.5%), Oroqen (1.4%), Mongola (0.9%), Hazara (0.6%), Yi (0.5%), Yakut (0.2%), Balochi (0.2%), Hezhen (0.2%), Lithuanian (0.2%), Orcadian (0.2%), Burusho (0.2%), Basque (0.1%), Daur (0.1%), Maya (0.1%), BantuKenya (0.1%), Indian (0.1%), Lahu (0.1%), Chuvash (0.1%), Colombian (0.1%), Hadza (0.1%), Naxi (0.1%)

The second side of the admixtures of the "Adygei" (blue): Georgian (35.8%), Hungarian (13.3%), Turkish (11.8%), Armenian (5.9%), Lezgin (5.8%), Greek (5.6%), Cypriot (3.0%), Iranian (2.2%), Pathan (1.3%), Balochi (1.3%), Syrian (1.1%), Polish (0.9%), Chuvash (0.8%), Palestinian (0.5%), Scottish (0.5%), Druze (0.4%), Sindhi (0.3%), Burusho (0.3%), Kalash (0.2%)

The region history of the "Adygei" residence during the main admixture event in 1530 AD. (1418—1810 AD.)

Graph 2 shows the 3 main components of the admixture of the "Adygei" for the mentioned period: Georgians, Hungarians and Turks. The similarity of the genetic picture with the group "Georgians" is clarified in the previous section. That means, if the group "Georgians" was formed as the modern population in the periods of the cooperative Abkhaz-Georgian kingdoms (914—1278 AD.), then the later period (1418—1810 AD.), logicaly shows the predominance of the group "Georgians" in today's group "Adygei".

The turkic segment is associated with the long time common history. It is known from the ancient history of Abkhazia that the Abkhazian king Leon I had married the daughter of the Khazar Kagan (VIII cent.). Their nephew Leon II with the support of the khazars getting the secession of Abkhazia and Lazica from the Byzantine Empire (VIII cent.) and declares independence of the Abkhazian kingdom. The more close contacts of the Abkhaz and the Turks dates back to XV century in the period of Ottoman Empire (XVI—XVIII centuries.). According to A.K. Shagirov most of the turkisms got to the Adygei during the Mongol-Tatar and the Crimean-Turkish conquests of the Northwest Caucasus [Shagirov 1989, p. 74]. During XIII-XIV centuries the North Caucasus is being settled by turkic-speaking Balkars, Karachais and Polovtsians, which are associated with modern Kumyks. In about XIV-XV centuries the Nogai appear here as well. Later on the turkic-speaking Truhmens arrive to Stavropol, the relatives of central asian Turkmens [Klimov 1965, p. 11]. King David IV the Builder in the fight against the Oghuz Turks of the Seljuk Empire invited and gave a permission to settle in Borchali and adjacent areas the Kipchak horde numbering 40 000 soldiers, which in total counting their families would be about 200 000 people. It is appropriate to note that at that time King David IV had also married the daughter of Kipchaks khan.

The segment of the group "Hungarians". From the 9th century the Magyars (proto Hungarians) migrated to the Circassian steppes of Northern Black Sea region. In 9-10 centuries they roamed the steppes between the Don and the Dnieper and the Khazars in 835 AD. built the Sarkel fortress on the left bank of the Don (Tsymlyanskoe) to protect themselves from Magyars. It is also known that in 1236 AD. Hungarian dominicans (catholic monastic order) went to the Volga river and started their missions in Matreg (or Tmutarakan - one of the oldest cities in the Taman Peninsula, which was located in present-day Taman Temryuk district of Krasnodar region). Also the Matreg Catholic Diocese with the a Circassian bishop was formed in the Taman peninsula. The part of the modern Circassians, for example, Besleneys (adygei subethnos), is generally considered to be descendants of the Magyars.




The group "Adygei" in 990 BC. (3678 BC. — 830 AD.)



Graph 3

Number of individuals: 17
The time period of the admixing events: 3678 BC. — 830 AD.
Approximate date of the main admixing event: 990 BC.

The group "Adygei", as a modern population was formed as a result of two main admixing events. The first event is described above. The second event in 1530 AD. between 1418 AD. and 1810 AD. and the admixing groups were:

The first side of the admixtures of the "Adygei" (orange): Oroqen (6.4%), Hezhen (5.5%), Finnish (4.2%), Daur (4.2%), Naxi (3.9%), Yakut (3.3%), Lahu (2.7%), She (2.7%), Mongola (2.6%), Xibo (2.4%)

The second side of the admixtures of the "Adygei" (blue): Georgian (24.0%), Druze (5.2%), Armenian (5.2%), Palestinian (4.3%), Lezgin (4.2%), Turkish (4.2%), Syrian (3.9%), Bedouin (3.7%), Cypriot (3.7%), Jordanian (3.6%)


The region history of the "Adygei" residence during the main admixture event in 990 BC. (3678 BC. — 830 AD.)

Graph 3 shows the group "Georgians" as the main component of the admixture of the "Adygei" in 990 BC. (3678 BC. — 830 AD.). Its presence and the similarity with the modern group "Georgians" was discussed in the two previous analysis of admixtures. The other segments (76%), due to the very large time period between 3678 BC. and 830 AD. are present in the admixture with approximately equal amounts.




Admixture conclusions on "Adygei" and "Georgian" groups

The names of the groups (the Georgians, Adygei, etc.) are defined by researchers of "A genetic atlas of human admixture history" in their FAQ in the section "How have you defined a “group”?" They define the group as "a certain number of people with an identical genetic picture" and date back the main genes admixing events between the studied groups.

1. There is a same main segment of admixtures in the studied groups "Adygei" and "Georgians". It is called "Adygei" in the group "Georgians" and "Georgians" in the group "Adygei".
2. The group "Georgians", as a modern population was formed as a result of the main admixing event in 1082 AD. between 914 AD. and 1082 AD.
3. According to Dr. Hellenthal, they haven't find the evidence for any other (older) mixing events in the group "Georgians" than 1082 AD. (914—1278 AD.).
4. Thу main admixing event of the group "Georgians" exactly coincides with the period of the Abkhazian Kingdom and it's later evolve to the Kingdom of Abkhazians and Kartvelians (Sakartvelo).
5. The group "Adygei", as a modern population was formed as a result of two main admixing events: 1530 AD. (1418—1810 AD.) and more ancient event 990 BC. (3678 BC. — 830 AD.).
6. The presence in the "Adygei" admixture of the older cases of admixing events compared with the group "Georgians" suggests that today's Georgians (formed as a result of the main population admixing event in 1082 for the period from 914 till 1278) are mainly Adygei genetically, but with a modern accumulated differences in cultural and linguistic forms.
7. The identical predominant type of admixture in both groups can mean the following:
- Option 1 - in 1082 AD. (91—1278 AD.) in the period of Abkhazian Kingdom the Georgian population was gradually absorbed by the Abkhaz-Adyghe, which led to the modern genetic picture of Georgians.
- Option 2 - before the above mentioned period (91—1278 AD.) the groups "Georgians" and "Adygei" has already been constituted as a unified nation.
8. The differences of cultures and languages on the background of an identical type of admixture in both groups, is likely explained by the political decisions of those days rulers.
9. About 75% of the remaining admixture segments from both groups, are presumably being the cause of differences in anthropological types between these them.
10. The full analysis of the main types of admixtures defines those groups as Near Eastern or Mesopotamian.



Y-DNA Phylogenetic Tree

Y chromosome

Brief definitions: autosomal chromosomes, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), X chromosomes, Y chromosomes, mutations, Y-DNA haplogroups by ethnic groups and countries, Caucasian Y-DNA haplogroups

Women and men have 23 pairs of chromosomes, where one chromosome was received from the father and the other from the mother. Unlike autosomal chromosomes, that are called by numbers from "1" to "22", the two of "sex" chromosomes have letter designations. XX for females and XY for males. The child inherits from the father the X chromosome (girl) or the Y chromosome (boy). The X chromosome from the father turns into a combination of XX and gives a birth to a girl. The Y chromosome from the father turns into a combination of XY and gives a birth to a boy. Almost all chromosomes undergo mixing (recombination) - it is a process when each pair of chromosomes exchange their fragments with each other. Since every male has only one Y chromosome it does not recombine, in contrast to the X chromosomes. For these reasons, a genealogical analysis using the X chromosomes is much more complicated. We also inherit mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from the mother, and none of them from the father.

The main tools of DNA genealogy tests are the mutations, their number and location in the mtDNA and
Y-DNA Migration Map
Y chromosomes. The Y chromosome, because of its very low frequency of mutations and the absence of the mixing (recombination), in contrast to the mitochondrial DNA passes almost intact from generation to generation. In variations of mutations the chromosome divided into haplotypes, which are combined into haplogroups and subclades (subgroups). All haplogroups letter designations are in alphabetical order and in this way show the time of occurrence of the following mutation. That means that haplogroup A (so-called Adam's Y-chromosome, appeared about 75,000 years ago, localized mainly in South Africa) is older than the haplogroup G (about 30,000 years old), etc. alphabetically. It also shows that the carriers of haplogroup G have one particular 30,000 years old common male-ancestor, while the Caucasian version of the G2a subclade has the 4,000 years old ancestor. The main possible carriers of the G2a subclade are - Arias, Tochars, "Ancient Europeans" (Etruscans), Hurrians, Urartu, Hutts, Phoenicians, Alans.

An additional opportunity for such studies may be the ancient archaeological finds from preserved DNA, such as Ötzi - the ice mummy man Chalcolithic era,
discovered in 1991 in the Tyrolean Alps. Ötzi belonged to haplogroup G2a and his age, found by radiocarbon method, is about 5300 years old. There are also finds of the same period, but in Spain (Lacan 2011, Haak 2010), where in the complex of burials they found bodies with the same G2a haplogroup. Also, recently in Bavaria were found 6 buried heavy riders cataphracts. 4 of 6 belonged to haplogroup R1b, the other two were of G2a (the main for the Western Caucasus) alongside whom the burial of horses, that were sacrificed in the sarmatian style (head and legs neatly stacked). (Vanek 2009)

As for today the Abkhazians, as well as the West Caucasus have mainly G2a [50,6] in their samples and three other haplogroups: J2 [22,3], R1a1a [9,9], R1b1b2 [6,4]. The highest percentage of representatives of haplogroup G2a common among Shapsugs (about 81%), and among the Abkhazians and Ossetians (about 55-75%).

By Литвинов 2010 (see Materials below):


Haplogroup G-M201 is divided into two major branches with a distinctive geography: G2-P287 and G1-M285, defined with M285 and M342 mutations [Karafet et al., 2008]. Haplogroup G1-M285 of the populations of Western Caucasus is found only in rare cases in populations of Adygei and Kabardians [Bogotova, 2009], and nowhere else recorded, but reaching 10.5% of Armenians (6 out of 57 individuals). Given that the population we studied is rather limited in numbers, it needs more precise interpretation of such a high frequency, taking into account a possible founder effect. Regarding the G2-P287 haplogroup in the Western Caucasus, it was presented by G2a-P15 and G2 * -P287 (xG2a) haplogroups. Comparing dissemination of those subclades the attention is needed to the fact that, despite an overall widespread of the haplogroup G2a-P15 and G2 * -P287 (xG2a), Abkhaz-Adygei characterized by a high incidence of G2 *-P287 (xG2a), and the other nations of the Western Caucasus are mostly G2a-P15. While here it is important to note that the G2 * -P287 (xG2a) with a frequency of 10.3% seen in the Kuban Nogai, but considering their Central Asian origin, itis most likely a later inclusion of this haplogroup in the genetic pool of the Nogai, since they were in close contact with the autochthonous Caucasian population. However, without knowing the phylogenetic status of haplogroup G2 * -P287 (xG2a), we can not make any conclusion of its origin. It is very likely, considering the results of [url = http: //arshba.ru/y-chromosome-haplotype-strata-in-anatolia-cinnioglu-2003-t470.html]. Cinnioglu et al [/ url], that G2a-P15 reflects the spread of Hattians culture in West Caucasus, all the more that this haplogroup is rare in Dagestan, reaching only at Andi and Lezghins 6.1 and 9.7% respectively, while the rest of Dagestan frequency of G2a-P15 does not exceed 5 %Yunusbaev, 2006; Kutuev et al., 2010]. On the other hand, there are not many populations worldwide with the presence of haplogroup G2 * -P287 (xG2a), this may indicate that there is a certain subclade inside the G2-P287, specific only to the Western Caucasus and, presumably, was formed on the basis of the Abkhaz-Adyghe substrate.


Fig. 5. The gene pool of Abkhaz-Adyghe populations, Georgians and Armenians

Genetic portraits of Abkhaz-Adyghe and Transcaucasia populations

By Теучеж 2013:


Haplogroup G. An analysis of the Y-chromosome variation found 35 haplogroups. "Genetic Portraits" of studied populations - the main range of the identified haplogroups and their shares in the gene pool are shown in Fig. 5. A significant part of the gene pool of the Abkhaz-Adyghe populations represented by a western asian haplogroup G2a3b-P303, which is consistent with previous results of our studies [Дибирова с соавт., 2010; Balanovsky et al., 2011]. In this case the maximum frequency detected in the three sub-ethnic groups of Adygei, in which it varies from 53% to 86%. Kabardians, Circassians, Abkhaz and Abaza populations have lower frequency of G2a3b-P303 - from 18% to 30%. Among other peoples of the Caucasus, this haplogroup is virtually absent: the peoples of Dagestan Avars have 10%, in Chechnya and Ingushetia, its frequency is an average of 2%, Ossetians - 3%. However, in the gene pool of Balkar the haplogroup frequency is increased to 17% [Shalyaho et al., 2013], ie almost to the same level as that of the neighboring Kabardians (22%). Georgians frequency of the haplogroup G2a3b-P303 (13%) is only slightly lower than that of the Abkhazians (18%), and the Armenians, it is practically absent. Armenians have another big branch of haplogroup G - haplogroup G1-M285 (20%).

Table. 1. Genetic distances of 35 Western Caucasus Y-chromosome haplogroups
Kabardin and Georgian noteworthy show an increase in the frequency of haplogroup G2a1a-P18 - 10%, whereas in the rest of the studied populations, it accounts for only 2% on average. Since the G2a1a-P18 found in two-thirds of Ossetians gene pool [Дибирова с соавт, 2010, Balanovsky et al., 2011], we can assume that the increase in the frequency of this haplogroup among the nations that are geographically close to the Central Caucasus, could be due to the assimilation of the indigenous population of the Central Caucasus, and it became part of the Ossetians and Kabardians and Georgians. However, there is another hypothesis of an increasing frequency of haplogroup G2a1a-P18 in Kabardians and Georgians by genealogical links with the Ossetians.

Haplogroup J. Another Near Eastern haplogroup found in the Abkhaz-Adyghe populations is J2. It was found with an average of 15%. However, in the Abkhazians it reaches a high frequency (27%), which brings them together with the Georgians and Armenians, that also have this haplogroup in about one third of their gene pool. The maximum values in the Caucasus frequency of this haplogroup reaches among the population of the Eastern Caucasus - Ingush (89%) and Chechens (55%).

A feature of the gene pool of the Abkhazians is the increase of the haplogroup J2a2-M67 (12%), that in the Armenians have 20%, reaching a maximum frequency in the Western Armenian Hamshen (31%). This haplogroup is virtually absent in Georgian populations we studied: they have a different version of this haplogroup J2a2a-M92 (13%).

Western Asian haplogroup J1-M267: Kubachins (98%) [Balanovsky et al., 2011]), Chechens (98%), Abkhaz-Adyghe (0-5 %).

Fig. 6. Comparison of the populations of Asia Minor, Europe and the Caucasus on 14 Y-chromosome haplogroups

Haplogroup R1a. A significant contribution to the gene pool of the Abkhaz-Adyghe found by the Western Eurasian haplogroup R1a1-M198, averaging 15% of the total gene pool, and reaching 25% in Abaza. There are 33% samples of this haplogroup among the Turkic peoples of the Western Caucasus [Схаляхо с соавт., 2013]. The presence of this haplogroup, according to some authors, may reflect the influence of Iranian-speaking population of the Eurasian steppes, preceding the expansion of the Turkic and Mongolian peoples [Багашев, 1998; Харьков с соавт., 2007]. A modest contribution of this haplogroup in the gene pool of the peoples of Transcaucasia (2-4%) may indicate the validity of this hypothesis. R1a1a1g-M458, which is the main european branch of haplogroup R1a1a-M198 [Underhill et al., 2009] and the half of the Slavs gene pool, was found in around 2-5% among Adygei, Kabardians, Circassians, Abkhazians, Abaza, Georgians and the Armenians 0%. In the Caucasus, haplogroup R1a1a1g-M458 reaches a high level only in the Kuban Nogais - 18%. The gene pool of the remaining populations of this haplogroup is found at low frequencies from 1% in Kumyks to 6% in the Balkars [Схаляхо c соавт., 2013]. This suggests that the gene pools of populations we have studied almost found no genetic traces of Slavic influences.

Other western eurasian haplogroups such as R1b3-M269, as well as a total of all subclades of a haplogroup I (including I1, I2a, I2b) are found from 0% to 9% (an average of 5%). Eastern eurasian haplogroup C3-M217 and C3C-M48 are only 0.5% in the studied populations. The average frequency of northern eurasian haplogroups Q-M242 and N1C1-M178 is 1%. With the general similarity of the distribution of haplogroups there are also some differences between populations. The greatest variety of haplogroups among Abkhaz-Adyghe populations are found in Kabardians and Circassians (28 Y-chromosome haplogroups). However, only the Kabardians have an unusual variety of caucasian haplogroups O3, G1a and F.


The Abkhazian Y-chromosome haplogroups





Comparison of Y-DNA chromosomes of Abkhazians, Circassians, Mingrelians, Georgians and Ossetians



The Time to a most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) for 111 markers of G-M201 samples for Abkhazians and Georgians

Distances are determined by using these scripts ysearch, isogg using the methods described in Walsh 2000 and Zhivotovsky 2004. The main data is from Balanovsky 2011 (Supplementary_Tables.xls), FTDNA Georgian DNA Project, FTDNA Ossetian DNA Project, FTDNA Adyghe DNA Project


In the following calculations of time to a most recent common ancestor - Cerkesoglu, Karba, Abashidze, K Shapsug and Khintba will be used from the Abkhaz side for comparison with the georgian side Swann, Ossetians, Mingrelians, Laz people and other G-M201 populations from Georgia.


Table 1
Kit Number
Paternal Ancestor Name
Country
Haplogroup
DYS393
DYS390
DYS19
DYS391
DYS385
DYS426
DYS388
DYS439
DYS389i
DYS392
DYS389ii
DYS458
DYS459
DYS455
DYS454
DYS447
DYS437
DYS448
DYS449
DYS464
DYS460
Y-GATA-H4
YCAII
DYS456
DYS607
DYS576
DYS570
CDY
DYS442
DYS438
DYS531
DYS578
DYF395S1
DYS590
DYS537
DYS641
DYS472
DYF406S1
DYS511
DYS425
DYS413
DYS557
DYS594
DYS436
DYS490
DYS534
DYS450
DYS444
DYS481
DYS520
DYS446
DYS617
DYS568
DYS487
DYS572
DYS640
DYS492
DYS565
DYS710
DYS485
DYS632
DYS495
DYS540
DYS714
DYS716
DYS717
DYS505
DYS556
DYS549
DYS589
DYS522
DYS494
DYS533
DYS636
DYS575
DYS638
DYS462
DYS452
DYS445
Y-GATA-A10
DYS463
DYS441
Y-GGAAT-1B07
DYS525
DYS712
DYS593
DYS650
DYS532
DYS715
DYS504
DYS513
DYS561
DYS552
DYS726
DYS635
DYS587
DYS643
DYS497
DYS510
DYS434
DYS461
DYS435
163132 Mustafa Cerkesoglu (Husht) Circassia Shapsug, Trabzon Turkey G-M201 14 23 15 10 13-14 11 12 11 13 11 31 17 9-9 11 11 23 16 20 29 13-13-14-14 11 11 20-20 16 13 16 20 35-36 11 10 11 8 15-16 8 12 10 8 12 11 14 21-22 17 10 12 13 14 8 12 21 24 17 13 11 14 10 11 11 11 35 15 8 17 12 21 27 21 11 10 12 13 11 9 9 11 10 10 12 27 10 12 21 14 11 13 29 15 18 16 24 19 13 15 27 12 22 18 11 14 17 9 11 11
306115 Chaguna Karbaia, b. c. 1775, Darcheli, Samegrelo Georgia G-M201 1423151013-13111211121128189-911112316203113-13-13-14101120-211712151835-36121011 815-16 81110 812111421-221510121213 812212319131113101111122915 816122127211111111311 9 91110101227101121141113261519142418131527122118111416 91211
TMRCA - Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor / Расстояние до ближайшего общего предка (мутация 0.004..0.0075 FTDNA; поколение 24-30 лет)
1060 ± 212 лет
163132 Mustafa Cerkesoglu (Husht) Circassia Shapsug, Trabzon Turkey G-M201 14 23 15 10 13-14 11 12 11 13 11 31 17 9-9 11 11 23 16 20 29 13-13-14-14 11 11 20-20 16 13 16 20 35-36 11 10 11 8 15-16 8 12 10 8 12 11 14 21-22 17 10 12 13 14 8 12 21 24 17 13 11 14 10 11 11 11 35 15 8 17 12 21 27 21 11 10 12 13 11 9 9 11 10 10 12 27 10 12 21 14 11 13 29 15 18 16 24 19 13 15 27 12 22 18 11 14 17 9 11 11
299046 Khuta Gulordava, b. c. 1770, Kitsia, Samegrelo Georgia G-M201 1422151016-16111211131030179-911122416212813-13-14-14101020-211615151836-37111011 815-16 81111 811101220-211510121216 813212216131113101111133016 81611232820 911131212 910111011122810122214 910241517122318121627122118111417 91211
TMRCA - Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor / Расстояние до ближайшего общего предка (мутация 0.004..0.0075 FTDNA; поколение 24-30 лет)
2568 ± 642 года
299046 Khuta Gulordava, b. c. 1770, Kitsia, Samegrelo Georgia G-M201 14 22 15 10 16-16 11 12 11 13 10 30 17 9-9 11 12 24 16 21 28 13-13-14-14 10 10 20-21 16 15 15 18 36-37 11 10 11 8 15-16 8 11 11 8 11 10 12 20-21 15 10 12 12 16 8 13 21 22 16 13 11 13 10 11 11 13 30 16 8 16 11 23 28 20 9 11 13 12 12 9 10 11 10 11 12 28 10 12 22 14 9 10 24 15 17 12 23 18 12 16 27 12 21 18 11 14 17 9 12 11
306115 Chaguna Karbaia, b. c. 1775, Darcheli, Samegrelo Georgia G-M201 1423151013-13111211121128189-911112316203113-13-13-14101120-211712151835-36121011 815-16 81110 812111421-221510121213 812212319131113101111122915 816122127211111111311 9 91110101227101121141113261519142418131527122118111416 91211
TMRCA - Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor / Расстояние до ближайшего общего предка (мутация 0.004..0.0075 FTDNA; поколение 24-30 лет)
2208 ± 552 года
216684 Kaikhosro Abashidze, b.c. 17??, Georgia Georgia G-M201 13 23 15 10 15-16 11 12 10 12 10 28 18 9-9 11 11 24 16 21 29 13-14-14-14 10 10 21-21 14 15 14 18 34-37 12 10                                                                                                                                                
283050 Dzikva Khintba, Abkhazia, Okhurei Abkhazia G-M201 1424151012-16111211121229179-911112316202913-13-13-13101120-211513161934-371110
TMRCA - Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor / Расстояние до ближайшего общего предка (мутация 0.004..0.0075 FTDNA; поколение 24-30 лет)
1656 ± 414 лет
283822 Almaskhan Buzaladze Born 1870 Georgia G-P303 14 22 15 11 13-14 11 12 11 13 11 30 18 9-9 12 11 23 16 21 27 13-13-14-14 10 11 20-20 16 13 18 19 34-38 11 10 12 8 15-16 8 11 10 8 11 11 14 21-24 15 11 12 12 15 8 14 21 24 17 13 11 13 10 11 11 12 31 15 8 16 11 21 27 22 11 11 12 13 11 9 9 11 10 10 12 27 10 12 21 13 11 11 28 15 17 14 24 17 13 15 27 12 21 19 11 14 19 9 11 11
172686 K Shapsug Russian Federation G-U1 1423151013-14111211121130169-911112316202913-13-13-13101120-201713161633-36111011 815-16 81110 811111421-221510121215 813212518131113101111123115 816122127211111121311 9 91210101227101222141111221518142419131527122118111419 91211
TMRCA - Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor / Расстояние до ближайшего общего предка (мутация 0.004..0.0075 FTDNA; поколение 24-30 лет)
1176 ± 300 лет
172686 K Shapsug Russian Federation G-U1 14 23 15 10 13-14 11 12 11 12 11 30 16 9-9 11 11 23 16 20 29 13-13-13-13-13-14-16 10 11 20-20 17 13 16 16 33-36 11 10 11 8 15-16 8 11 10 8 11 11 14 21-22 15 10 12 12 15 8 13 21 25 18 13 11 13 10 11 11 12 31 15 8 16 12 21 27 21 11 11 12 13 11 9 9 12 10 10 12 27 10 12 22 14 11 11 22 15 18 14 24 19 13 15 27 12 21 18 11 14 19 9 12 11
163132 Mustafa Cerkesoglu (Husht) Circassia Shapsug, Trabzon Turkey G-M201 1423151013-14111211131131179-911112316202913-13-14-14111120-201613162035-36111011 815-16 81210 812111421-221710121314 812212417131114101111113515 817122127211110121311 9 91110101227101221141113291518162419131527122218111417 91111
TMRCA - Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor / Расстояние до ближайшего общего предка (мутация 0.004..0.0075 FTDNA; поколение 24-30 лет)
1104 ± 276 лет
299046 Khuta Gulordava, b. c. 1770, Kitsia, Samegrelo Georgia G-M201 14 22 15 10 16-16 11 12 11 13 10 30 17 9-9 11 12 24 16 21 28 13-13-14-14 10 10 20-21 16 15 15 18 36-37 11 10 11 8 15-16 8 11 11 8 11 10 12 20-21 15 10 12 12 16 8 13 21 22 16 13 11 13 10 11 11 13 30 16 8 16 11 23 28 20 9 11 13 12 12 9 10 11 10 11 12 28 10 12 22 14 9 10 24 15 17 12 23 18 12 16 27 12 21 18 11 14 17 9 12 11
283822 Almaskhan Buzaladze Born 1870 Georgia G-P303 1422151113-14111211131130189-912112316212713-13-14-14101120-201613181934-38111012 815-16 81110 811111421-241511121215 814212417131113101111123115 816112127221111121311 9 91110101227101221131111281517142417131527122119111419 91111
TMRCA - Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor / Расстояние до ближайшего общего предка (мутация 0.004..0.0075 FTDNA; поколение 24-30 лет)
2256 ± 564 года
Kit Number
Paternal Ancestor Name
Country
Haplogroup
DYS393
DYS390
DYS19
DYS391
DYS385
DYS426
DYS388
DYS439
DYS389i
DYS392
DYS389ii
DYS458
DYS459
DYS455
DYS454
DYS447
DYS437
DYS448
DYS449
DYS464
DYS460
Y-GATA-H4
YCAII
DYS456
DYS607
DYS576
DYS570
CDY
DYS442
DYS438
DYS531
DYS578
DYF395S1
DYS590
DYS537
DYS641
DYS472
DYF406S1
DYS511
DYS425
DYS413
DYS557
DYS594
DYS436
DYS490
DYS534
DYS450
DYS444
DYS481
DYS520
DYS446
DYS617
DYS568
DYS487
DYS572
DYS640
DYS492
DYS565
DYS710
DYS485
DYS632
DYS495
DYS540
DYS714
DYS716
DYS717
DYS505
DYS556
DYS549
DYS589
DYS522
DYS494
DYS533
DYS636
DYS575
DYS638
DYS462
DYS452
DYS445
Y-GATA-A10
DYS463
DYS441
Y-GGAAT-1B07
DYS525
DYS712
DYS593
DYS650
DYS532
DYS715
DYS504
DYS513
DYS561
DYS552
DYS726
DYS635
DYS587
DYS643
DYS497
DYS510
DYS434
DYS461
DYS435
163132 Mustafa Cerkesoglu (Husht) Circassia Shapsug, Trabzon Turkey G-M201 14 23 15 10 13-14 11 12 11 13 11 31 17 9-9 11 11 23 16 20 29 13-13-14-14 11 11 20-20 16 13 16 20 35-36 11 10 11 8 15-16 8 12 10 8 12 11 14 21-22 17 10 12 13 14 8 12 21 24 17 13 11 14 10 11 11 11 35 15 8 17 12 21 27 21 11 10 12 13 11 9 9 11 10 10 12 27 10 12 21 14 11 13 29 15 18 16 24 19 13 15 27 12 22 18 11 14 17 9 11 11
218868 Vardan Dadiani, b.c. XII c. Georgia G-M201 1322151015-18111212111029169-911112616212813-13-14-14101019-191515161835-35121011 815-16 81110 811101221-221410121214 81221221613111310111112                                            
TMRCA - Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor / Расстояние до ближайшего общего предка (мутация 0.004..0.0075 FTDNA; поколение 24-30 лет)
1800 ± 450 лет
306115 Chaguna Karbaia, b. c. 1775, Darcheli, Samegrelo Georgia G-M201 14 23 15 10 13-13 11 12 11 12 11 28 18 9-9 11 11 23 16 20 31 13-13-13-14 10 11 20-21 17 12 15 18 35-36 12 10 11 8 15-16 8 11 10 8 12 11 14 21-22 15 10 12 12 13 8 12 21 23 19 13 11 13 10 11 11 12 29 15 8 16 12 21 27 21 11 11 11 13 11 9 9 11 10 10 12 27 10 11 21 14 11 13 26 15 19 14 24 18 13 15 27 12 21 18 11 14 16 9 12 11
243083 Akoev, Ak'oti, North Ossetia Russian Federation G-M201 1323151013-14111211121129169-911112316202813-13-13-13111220-201613161634-35111011 816-16 81110 813111421-221610121215 813212619131113101111123115 816122227211111131211 9 91210101128101221141111201518172418131527122118111418 91211
TMRCA - Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor / Расстояние до ближайшего общего предка (мутация 0.004..0.0075 FTDNA; поколение 24-30 лет)
1320 ± 330 лет
216684 Kaikhosro Abashidze, b.c. 17??, Georgia Georgia G-M201 13 23 15 10 15-16 11 12 10 12 10 28 18 9-9 11 11 24 16 21 29 13-14-14-14 10 10 21-21 14 15 14 18 34-37 12 10                                                                                                                                                
302135 Kharchilava Vasil, b. 1878 and d. 1977 Georgia G-M201 1422151016-17111212121028169-911122416212913-14-14-14101019-201515162035-39121011 815-16 81110 812101221-221410121215 81321211613111310111112
TMRCA - Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor / Расстояние до ближайшего общего предка (мутация 0.004..0.0075 FTDNA; поколение 24-30 лет)
1008 ± 252 года
172686 K Shapsug Russian Federation G-U1 14 23 15 10 13-14 11 12 11 12 11 30 16 9-9 11 11 23 16 20 29 13-13-13-13-13-14-16 10 11 20-20 17 13 16 16 33-36 11 10 11 8 15-16 8 11 10 8 11 11 14 21-22 15 10 12 12 15 8 13 21 25 18 13 11 13 10 11 11 12 31 15 8 16 12 21 27 21 11 11 12 13 11 9 9 12 10 10 12 27 10 12 22 14 11 11 22 15 18 14 24 19 13 15 27 12 21 18 11 14 19 9 12 11
259023 Laz Georgia G-M201 1423151013-14121211121229179-911112415202913-13-13-14111120-201713151734-371110                                                                        
TMRCA - Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor / Расстояние до ближайшего общего предка (мутация 0.004..0.0075 FTDNA; поколение 24-30 лет)
912 ± 228 лет



The conclusion on TMRCA:
The averaged Time to a most recent common male ancestor on G-M201 for the listed in Table 1: 1551 ± 332 years.




The main Western Caucasus Y-DNA haplogroup "G"

Western Caucasian (Circassians, Abkhazians, Megrelians, Georgians, Ossetians) Y-chromosome haplogroups conclusions

1. Основная доля по Y-хромосоме на Западном Кавказе приходится на гаплогруппы G2-P287 (44,1%) и J2-M172 (20,1%), что говорит о двух основных общих предках по мужской линии.
2. Анализ Y-хромосом абхазов показал схожие с предыдущим выводом результаты: гаплогруппа G2a >50% (G2a1a: 12%, G2a*: 24%, G2a3b1 (G2a1c2a): 21%) и гаплогруппа J2a ~20% (J2*: 5%, J2a4b*: 7%, J2a4b1: 2% [по данным Балановского]; J2a*: 14.8%, J2a2*: 8.6%, J2a2a: 2.5%, J2b: 0.6% [по данным Литвинова]).
3. Выделение мегрелов и абхазов, показывает почти идентичную картину по смеси всех глапрогрупп Y-хромосомы.
4. Близость исследуемых популяций друг к другу определяет наличие схожих гаплогрупп. Например в Восточной Грузии наблюдается пограничное влияние соседей, что выражается в большем количестве носителей гаплогрупп R1b и J1.
5. Общий предок G-P303 жил примерно 11500 лет назад возможно в Леванте.
6. Общий предок G-P303 для всего Кавказа жил примерно 5345 лет назад.
7. Общий предок G-P303 для абхазов, шапсугов и черкесов жил примерно 2445 лет назад.
8. По видимому, гаплогруппа G2a пришла на Кавказ из Европы, где ее находят в древних захоронениях с датировками 5000 лет назад. Похоже, носители гаплогруппы G2a прошли из Европы по Малой Азии в Месопотамию, и оттуда поднялись на Кавказ и в Северный Китай.
9. Усреднённое расстояние до ближайшего общего мужского предка по G-M201 для перечисленных в Таблице 1: 1551 ± 332 года.
10. У абхазо-адыгских народов к мажорным гаплогруппам относятся G2a3b-P303, G2a1a-P18, J2-M172 и R1a1-M198, у популяций армян – гаплогруппы G1-M285 и J2a2-M67, грузин – G2a3b-P303, G2a1a-P18 и J2-M172. Народы Западного Кавказа и Закавказья в генетическом пространстве Евразии образуют единый кластер, обособленный от других генофондов Евразии. Выявленное преобладание переднеазиатского субстрата (G2a3b-P303, G2a1a-P18 и J2-M172) свидетельствует об общности их происхождения. Высокая частота евразийской гаплогруппы R1a1-М198 и низкая встречаемость характерной для Европы субветви R1a1a1g-М458 у абхазо-адыгских народов связана с миграциями народов из евразийской степи, а не с экспансией славянских народов.





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