Post Published » 07 Jan 2016, 18:52, recent changes » 19 Dec 2020, 22:33


  • Any information on this website should not be considered as an irrefutable fact and is offered as a model based on modern advances and researches;
  • Studying the history of the people, it is important to distinguish between cocepts like propaganda, culture, people, language, country, state, DNA, genes, current and previous places of living. Example: abkhazians of african descent;
  • The science — is fact + proof + logic. Any conclusions emerging from this scheme are no longer useful;
  • Y-chromosome. Video, eng .: autosomal chromosome, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), X chromosome, mutations;
  • The age of haplogroups is approximate in all cases. The greater the age — the greater the error;
  • On any copyright issues, please, use a button [!] at the top right corner of the messages.

The chronology uses:

  1. This research;
  2. The DNA sctructure of today's Abkhazians on these conclusions;
  3. Overview of all the known cultures in the potential habitats of abkhazian ancestors;
  4. Ancient sources and archaeological sites mentioning the Abkhazians and their ancestors;
  5. Historical and any other maps of the abkhaz and their ancestors habitat;
  6. The connections in legends, eposes and religions;
  7. Generalized conclusions of experts in related disciplines (genetics, archeology, linguistics, history, etc.);
  8. The known history of climate change in the regions of migrations;
  9. A scientifically reasonable new data on the topic;
  10. Software and resources: Arlequin; McGee Y-DNA Comparison Utility; Glottochronological and lexicostatistical language databases: 1, 2;
  11. This materials;
  12. The list of possible participants of abkhaz ethnogenesis;
  13. The main Y-DNA haplogroups of the Abkhaz the whole of the Western Caucasus are G (M201) and J (M304) These Y-DNA haplogroups and their subclades, in conjunction with other data of genetics and DNA genealogy, is used to determine the genetic ancestors of modern Abkhazians.

Phylogenetic tree of the Abkhaz
G and J

Abkhazian subclades of G (M201):

G2 (P287) — 24%
G2a1a1 (P16) — 12%
G2a2b2a (P303) — 21%

Total G (M201) with subclades is 57% of the total number of haplogroups.

Abkhazian subclades of J (M304):

J1a2b (P58) — 1,2%
J2a (M410) — 14,8%
J2a1b (M67) — 8,6%
J2a1b1 (M92) — 2,5%
J2b (M12) — 0,6%

Total J (M304) with subclades is 27,7% of the total number of haplogroups.